原文：The PIT state serves other valuable purposes. First, since it records the set of interfaces over which the Interests for the same data name have arrived, it naturally supports multicast data delivery. Second, since each Interest retrieves at most one Data packet, a router can control the trac load by controlling the number of pending Interests to achieve flow balance. Third, the number of PIT entries is an indicator of router load; constraining its size limits the e ffect of a DDoS attack. Finally, PIT entry timeouts o ffer relatively cheap attack detection, and the arrival interface information in each PIT entry could support a push-back scheme.
原文：The NDN architecture does not have a separate transport layer. It moves the functions of today's transport protocols (demultiplexing, reliable delivery, and congestion control) into applications, supporting libraries, and the strategy module of the forwarding plane. Transport-layer information such as port and sequence numbers are unnecessary; all information required for transport is in the Data names.
原文：NDN's flow balance requirement, together with the ability of nodes to control their own trafic load by limiting the number of pending Interests at each hop, can provide eff ective congestion control throughout the network. If congestion losses occur, caching mitigates the impact since retransmitted Interests can be satis ed by cached Data packets right before the point of packet losses. Thus, NDN can avoid the kind of congestion collapse that can occur in today's Internet when a packet is lost near its destination and repeated retransmissions from the original source host(s) consume most of the bandwidth.
（4）Page 6~Page 7：开源软件支持：
（1）Page 2：NDN中的流平衡与TCP/IP中的TCP ACK有什么相似之处？什么是反馈环路（feedback loop）？
原文：Data packets always take the reverse path of Interests, and, in the absence of packet losses, one Interest packet results in one Data packet on each link, providing flow balance. To fetch large content objects that comprise multiple packets, Interests provide a similar role in controlling trafic flow as TCP ACKs in today's Internet: a fine-grained feedback loop controlled by the consumer of the data.
（2）Page 2：什么是flat names？什么是flat routing？
原文：Flat names can be accommodated as a special case, likely useful in local environments, however hierarchical namespaces are essential both in scaling
the routing system and in providing necessary context for the data. (Even advocates of flat routing acknowledge that at names scale by introducing some hierarchy.)
（3）Page 3：Interest selectors不了解。
原文：(2) Interest selectors in conjunction with longest prefi x matching retrieve the desired data through one or more iterations. Our experience so far suggests that a simple set of selectors can support retrieving data with partially known names.
（4）Page 3：以下这句话不理解，需要学习文献："cognitive dimensions" framework。
原文：Enabling application developers, and sometimes users, to design their own namespaces for data exchange has several benefi ts: increasing the closeness of mapping between an application's data and its use of the network; reducing the need for secondary notation (record-keeping to map application con figuration to network con gfiuration); and expanding the range of abstractions available to the developers.
（5）Page 3：什么是web-of-trust？什么是pre-agreed trust anchors？
原文：web-of-trust to enable secure communication without requiring pre-agreed trust anchors.
（6）Page 4：in-network storage和Content Delivery Networks (CDNs)的结合。
原文：In addition to the Content Store, the architecture now supports a more persistent and larger-volume in-network storage, called a Repository (Repo for short). This type of storage can support services similar to that of today's Content Delivery Networks (CDNs), without having to engineer them as an application layer overlay using creative protocol tricks (e.g., DNS manipulation) to make them work.
（7）Page 5：NDNVideo application不了解。
原文：The NDNVideo application does not require direct communication between publisher and consumer, enabling publisher independent scalability through NDN's use of in-network storage. Applications that perform on-the-fly assembly of content or selection of video sections, i.e., frame-level random access requirements, are supported directly through namespace design.
（8）Page 5~Page 6：OSPFN路由协议设计不了解。NLSR路由协议不了解。
原文：Routing Protocol Design部分。
Exploring New Routing Paradigms部分。
原文：For example, the security needs of NLSR required development of a simple hierarchical trust model in which keys are published with names that reflect their trust relationship. A root key is owned by the network domain's administrator, and below the root are site keys, each owned by a single site's administrator, signed by the root key and published in the next level of the hierarchy. Each site key then signs the site's operator keys, which in turn sign router keys, which in turn sign the key of the NLSR process on that router. Finally, the NLSR key signs the routing data originated by NLSR.